Cellular respiration involves the breakdown of organic molecules to produce ATP. A sufficient supply of oxygen is required for the aerobic respiratory machinery of Kreb's Cycle and the Electron Transport System to efficiently convert stored organic energy into energy trapped in ATP. Carbon dioxide is also generated by cellular metabolism and must be removed from the cell. There must be an exchange of gases: carbon dioxide leaving the cell, oxygen entering. Animals have organ systems involved in facilitating this exchange as well as the transport of gases to and from exchange areas.
Single-celled organisms exchange gases directly across their cell membrane. However, the slow diffusion rate of oxygen relative to carbon dioxide limits the size of single-celled organisms. Simple animals that lack specialized exchange surfaces have flattened, tubular, or thin shaped body plans, which are the most efficient for gas exchange. However, these simple animals are rather small in size.
Large animals cannot maintain gas exchange by diffusion across their outer surface. They developed a variety of respiratory surfaces that all increase the surface area for exchange, thus allowing for larger bodies. A respiratory surface is covered with thin, moist epithelial cells that allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to exchange. Those gases can only cross cell membranes when they are dissolved in water or an aqueous solution, thus respiratory surfaces must be moist.
Lungs are ingrowths of the body wall and connect to the outside by as series of tubes and small openings. Lung breathing probably evolved about 400 million years ago. Lungs are not entirely the sole property of vertebrates, some terrestrial snails have a gas exchange structures similar to those in frogs.
Lungs in a bird (top) and amphibian (bottom).
Functional unit of a mammalian lung.
This system includes the lungs, pathways connecting them to the outside environment, and structures in the chest involved with moving air in and out of the lungs.
The human respiratory system.
Air enters the body through the nose, is warmed, filtered, and passed through the nasal cavity. Air passes the pharynx (which has the epiglottis that prevents food from entering the trachea). The upper part of the trachea contains the larynx. The vocal cords are two bands of tissue that extend across the opening of the larynx.
After passing the larynx, the air moves into the bronchi that carry air in and out of the lungs.
The lungs and alveoli and their relationship to the diaphragm and capillaries.
Bronchi are reinforced to prevent their collapse and are lined with ciliated epithelium and mucus-producing cells. Bronchi branch into smaller and smaller tubes known as bronchioles. Bronchioles terminate in grape-like sac clusters known as alveoli (sing. = alveolus) which are tiny, multi-lobed air sacs made of simple squamous cells. Having this thin wall enables air exchange with the equally-thin-walled capillaries of the circulatory system. In order to function properly, the alveoli must always stay moist. Special cells in the alveoli secrete a substance called a surfactant which reduces the surface tension of water, thereby enabling it to better coat the cells of the alveoli to keep them moist and keep them from sticking to each other when the person exhales. The ability to secrete this chemical doesn’t develop until around the eighth or ninth month of pregnancy, so there frequently is a problem in premature babies with the lack of surfactant causing the alveoli to stick together when the baby exhales. Then, when the baby inhales again, the stuck alveolar cells tear away from their neighbors. Scar tissue forms at these sites, thus the damage is permanent, and the person’s lungs lose some of their elasticity and ability to expand fully. A current “hot” area of research is searching for a suitable replacement surfactant that could be placed into the lungs of premature babies to prevent this damage.
Alveoli are surrounded by a network of thin-walled capillaries. Only about 0.2 µm separate the alveoli from the capillaries due to the extremely thin walls of both structures.
Gas exchange across capillary and alveolus walls.
The lungs are large, lobed, paired organs in the chest (also known as the thoracic cavity). Thin sheets of epithelium (pleura) separate the inside of the chest cavity from the outer surface of the lungs. The bottom of the thoracic cavity is formed by the diaphragm.
Ventilation is the mechanics of breathing in and out. When you inhale, muscles in the chest wall contract, lifting the ribs and pulling them, outward. The diaphragm at this time moves downward enlarging the chest cavity. Reduced air pressure in the lungs causes air to enter the lungs. Exhaling reverses theses steps.
Inhalation and exhalation.
The condition of the airways and the pressure difference between the lungs and atmosphere are important factors in the flow of air in and out of lungs. Many diseases affect the condition of the airways.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Diffusion is the movement of materials from a higher to a lower concentration. The differences between oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations are measured by partial pressures. The greater the difference in partial pressure the greater the rate of diffusion.
Respiratory pigments increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Humans have the red-colored pigment hemoglobin as their respiratory pigment. Hemoglobin increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood between 65 and 70 times. Each red blood cell has about 250 million hemoglobin molecules, and each milliliter of blood contains 1.25 X 1015 hemoglobin molecules. Oxygen concentration in cells is low (when leaving the lungs blood is 97% saturated with oxygen), so oxygen diffuses from the blood to the cells when it reaches the capillaries.
Effectiveness of various oxygen carrying molecules.
Carbon dioxide concentration in metabolically active cells is much greater than in capillaries, so carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the capillaries. Water in the blood combines with carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate. This removes the carbon dioxide from the blood so diffusion of even more carbon dioxide from the cells into the capillaries continues yet still manages to "package" the carbon dioxide for eventual passage out of the body.
Details of gas exchange.
In the alveoli capillaries, bicarbonate combines with a hydrogen ion (proton) to form carbonic acid, which breaks down into carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide then diffuses into the alveoli and out of the body with the next exhalation.
Muscular contraction and relaxation controls the rate of expansion and constriction of the lungs. These muscles are stimulated by nerves that carry messages from the part of the brain that controls breathing, the medulla. Two systems control breathing: an automatic response and a voluntary response. Both are involved in holding your breath.
Although the automatic breathing regulation system allows you to breathe while you sleep, it sometimes malfunctions. Apnea involves stoppage of breathing for as long as 10 seconds, in some individuals as often as 300 times per night. This failure to respond to elevated blood levels of carbon dioxide may result from viral infections of the brain, tumors, or it may develop spontaneously. A malfunction of the breathing centers in newborns may result in SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome).
As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. Above 10,000 feet decreased oxygen pressures causes loading of oxygen into hemoglobin to drop off, leading to lowered oxygen levels in the blood. The result can be mountain sickness (nausea and loss of appetite). Mountain sickness does not result from oxygen starvation but rather from the loss of carbon dioxide due to increased breathing in order to obtain more oxygen.
Text ©1992, 1994, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, by M.J. Farabee, all rights reserved. Use for educational purposes is heartily encouraged!