open circulatory system vs closed circulatory system open:  no distinction between circulating and extracellular fluid (both called hemolymph)

closed:  transport of blood which is always enclosed within vessels from and back to a pump, the heart
What is the difference in an open and closed circulatory system?  What is hemolymph?  
role of circulatory system transport oxygen, nutrients, wastes, hormones; temperature regulation, blood clotting and immune defense;  cardiovascular system includes heart, vessels, blood, and all the material blood contains
The circulatory system transports what?  The cardiovascular system includes what?  
plasma solutes globulins, albumins, ions, metabolites, wastes, hormones

Consider:  During circulation blood is filtered out of capillaries without any proteins. This fluid bathes the tissues and is called interstitial fluid.  Any excess fluid that seeps into the tissues (and does not move back into the capillaries because of osmotic potential) is picked up by the lymphatic system.
vessel structure (arteries, arterioles, venules, veins) all have basic 4-layer structure including endothelium, elastic fibers, smooth muscle, connective tissue
blood vessels Arteries:  largest vessels (some need own blood supply), carry blood (oxygenated and deoxygenated) away from heart, 3 layers (innermost is endothelium, middle, smooth muscle, helps control blood pressure)

Arterioles: have greatest control over blood flow since they have sphincter muscles that determine flow into capillary beds (precapillary sphincters)

capillaries: single layer of endothelial cells (area where exchange of gases and metabolites between blood and tissues occurs)

venules & veins: thinner walls (less muscle and thinner elastic fiber layers) than arteries arterioles, bring blood back to heart; have valves (skeletal muscles squeeze pushing blood towards heart, one-way valves prevent backflow); veins, because of their expansion capabilities, can expand to hold additional blood

Describe the basic structure of the vessels.  What vessels move blood away from the heart?  How do arteries structure help maintain blood pressure?  What is the role of sphincter muscles and where are they found?  Where does exchange take place?  How is blood moved through venuels and veins?  What vessels act as a blood reservoir?  
atherosclerosis 1st anatomical change in artery  is appearance of fatty streaks; localize plaques reduce artery flow and act as thrombus sites;
arteriosclerosis  arterial hardening due to calcium deposition 
What is the difference between atherosclerosis and
arteriosclerosis?
 
lymphatic system a one way system that collects the excess interstitial fluid and digested fats and moves it (by skeletal muscle contractions and one-way valves) until it drains into subclavian veins

Consider:  Physical conditions such as pregnancy, injuries, liver disease, or protein malnutrition can lead to edema which is a result of increased interstitial fluid in various body tissues.
What is the role of the lymphatic system in collecting excess tissue fluid and returning it to the cardiovascular system?  
interstitial fluid fluid, filtered out of capillaries without proteins, which bathes the tissues
blood (connective tissue) matrix:  plasma:  92% water, metabolites, wastes, hormones, ions, proteins (albumins, globulins, fibrinogen)

Albumin (major plasma protein; helps determine osmotic pressure of blood), globulins (include antibodies that function in immunity, help transport hormones, cholesterol and iron) and fibrinogen (responsible for clot formation); these are synthesized in the liver

formed elements:  RBC (erythrocytes - oxygen transport), WBC (leukocytes - immunity, phagocytosis), platelets (thrombocytes - blood clotting)
Plasma includes what?  What is the major role of albumin?  Globulins do what?  What is the role of fibrinogin?  Where are the plasma proteins produced?
What are the formed elements and what is the role of each? 
Consider:  By having a higher protein concentration within the capillaries, water will be drawn into them through process of osmosis.  Albumin has a major role as that protein.
compare erythrocytes (RBC) to leukocytes (WBC) erythrocytes:  RBC - originate from stem cells in red marrow; biconcave disc which upon maturity lacks a nucleus; contains hemoglobin --> protein made of 4 amino acid chains that each carry a heme group that contains an atom of iron  which binds to oxygen; hemoglobin is also responsible for transporting ~35% of CO2 (majority of CO2 is transported as bicarbonate ion in plasma; bicarbonate acts as buffer to help regulate pH) which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide; life span of ~120 days ends when removed from blood in liver and spleen

leukocytes:  mature cell has nucleus, can be long-lived, can leave blood and use amoeboid movement to travel through tissues; role is immune system duties protecting body against disease; most abundant leukocyte in blood is neutrophils; also include eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes

What are the roles of RBC in gas transport?  What actually binds to the oxygen molecules?  How is CO2 transported?  What is the relationship between CO2 and pH?  How long does a RBC survive and where is it removed?  WBC include leukocytes and lymphocytes that all have a protective role?  How do they compare to RBCs?  They include what members?  
heart double pump; 4 chambers - 2 atria (superior) 2 ventricles (inferior); septum separates right side (pulmonary circuit) from left side (systemic circuit)

myocardium (the major portion of the heart; mostly cardiac muscle tissue: striated, elongated, branching, with many mitochondria, intercalated disks and high reserves of myoglobin, an oxygen binding pigment  (necessary since it relies on aerobic respiration); heart surrounded by a double layered pericardium (visceral is inner layer next to heart and parietal is outer layer; these layers are separated by pericardial cavity filled with fluid)

Consider:  The pericardial sac is a double layered, closed structure with a fibrous connective tissue outer layer (parietal) and an inner layer (visceral) of squamous epithelial cells. This sac anchors the heart in the chest and protects it.
What are the chambers of the heart?  What separates the right from the left portions of the heart and what does each side pump to?  What is myocardium?  What is the pericardium and what is found in the pericardial cavity?  
vessels arteries, arterioles (carry blood away from heart) capillaries (where exchange takes place), venules, veins (carry blood back to heart)

innermost layer of all vessels endothelium; capillaries are made of only endothelial cells; arteries, arterioles, venules, and veins all also have elastic fibers, smooth muscle layer, and a connective tissue layer

arteries: 3 layers, muscular and elastic (contain lots of elastin), expansion during systole and recoil during diastole helps maintain smooth blood flow

veins: 3 layers, hold the majority of blood in circulatory system, expand readily, have low blood pressure so skeletal muscle contractions and one-way valves needed to return blood to heart

capillaries: site of exchange; flow through capillaries is determined by state of constriction of arteriole precapillary sphincters  blood is deoxygenated until it passes through pulmonary capillaries and is oxygenated until it passes through systemic capillaries

What is the innermost layer of all vessels?  How do arteries help maintain smooth blood flow?  Where does exchange take place?  What controls flow into the capillaries?  
 blood flow (deoxygenated) right atrium, tricuspid valve (right AV valve), right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary artery, pulmonary arterioles,

pulmonary capillaries,

(oxygenated)  pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valve (left AV valve), left ventricle, left semilunar valve, aorta

Consider:  Once the blood passes the pulmonary capillaries, it is oxygenated and travels thru the pulmonary veins on its way back to the left atrium in the heart.  Since the heart has its own vascular system supplying it with oxygen and nutrients (coronary artery), the pulmonary vein and the aorta would be the two vessels containing blood with the highest oxygen content.

Consider:  Blood traveling through a portal system travels from one capillary bed to another capillary bed before entering venuels and veins on the way back to the heart.

heartbeat sounds The sound of the valves closing.  The 'lub' is the AV valves closing and the 'dub' is the semilunar valves closing.
What are we actually listening to in a heart beat?  
cardiac cycle intrinsic contraction is stimulated by  SA node (sinoatrial node: pacemaker of the heart) located in right atrium --> membrane depolarization --> AV node (now depolarized) --> bundle of His (fiber network) --> Purkinje fibers (direct stimulation of both ventricles triggering contraction)

extrinsic contraction controlled by vagus nerve - stimulation causes heart rate to increase

Consider:  Even though the atria and ventricles are separated by connective tissue, the depolarization can slowly pass through the AV node. 
Depolarization is triggered by what node?  What node picks up the depolarization?  The action potential moves from what fiber network to what area that stimulates ventricular contraction? Role of vagus nerve?  
 cardiac output  volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute; averages 5 liters per minute in resting person

Consider:  BP (arterial blood pressure) = CO (cardiac output) x R (resistance)
 What makes up cardiac output?  How do we measure arterial blood pressure?   
systolic and diastolic pressures systolic:  peak pressure when ventricles are contracting    diastolic:  minimum pressure when ventricles are relaxing

 baroreceptors  located in walls of carotid artery and arch of aorta; responsible for detecting changes in arterial blood pressure
What is being measured in systolic and diastolic pressures?  What structure detects changes in arterial blood pressure?  
  In an EKG (or ECG) pattern, the P wave is caused by what? depolarization of atrial muscle fibers (atria contraction beginning)
  In an EKG pattern, the T wave is caused by what? polarization of ventricular muscle fibers (relaxation beginning)
In an EKG pattern, the QRS complex is caused by what? depolarization of the ventricular muscle fibers (ventricles contraction beginning); appears after atrial depolarization
What are the different patterns in an EKG and what does each measure?  
blood flow through veins ensured by one way valves, thinner muscle layers, thinner elastic fiber layers, and ability to be expanded to hold additional blood and be compressed by surrounding skeletal muscle
vertebrate cardiovascular center within medulla oblongata; coordinates information on blood pressure, volume, oxygen content, and carbon dioxide content; stimulation of vagus nerve causes an increase in the heart rate
Where is the cardiovascular center?  What nerve has a direct role in increasing the heart rate?  
cardiac hormones that regulate blood volume ADH, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic hormone, Nitric oxide
What hormones have a role in blood volume?  
hemostasis (cessation of bleeding) vasoconstriction --> platelet plug --> fibrin protein clot

plasma protein activation pathway is prothrombin --> thrombin (which activates) -->fibrinogen into fibrin

process of blood clotting in which injured tissues (stimulate activation of extrinsic blood clotting pathway) become sticky allowing platelets to adhere forming platelet plug (formation is inhibited by aspirin), blood vessels constrict, and tissues excrete chemical signals (clotting factor activation by contact with connective tissue) and presence of Ca+2 ions initiates the plasma protein activation pathway that stimulates prothrombin to convert into thrombin which in turn stimulates fibrinogen to activate into fibrin (final protein forming insoluble meshwork)
What is the activation pathway for hemostasis?  What ion has a key role in blood clotting?  What is the last step in the formation of the insoluble meshwork of a clot?  
respiratory system structure -  The trachea's structure is based around cartilaginous rings and contains cilia that sweeps debris (embedded in mucus) towards throat to be swallowed and disposed of by gastric juice.  Smoking causes ciliated epithelium to be replaced with squamous epithelium.

-  Bronchi are tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs.  The pathway of air is bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveoli.

-  The alveolar ducts and alveoli (composed of simple squamous epithelium) are the sites of gas exchange between inspired air and blood.

Consider:  In the case of fish, the gills' high efficiency rate is the result of the countercurrent flow of water over the gills and the blood within the gills.
What specialized structures are found in the trachea?  What is the pathway of air from the trachea to the alveoli?  
atmosphere ~21% oxygen
While nitrogen makes up the greatest portion of our atmosphere, oxygen content is what level?  
double circulation evolved with lungs - allows blood to flow through lungs (pulmonary circuit) while it also flows through body (systemic circuit)
What is the relationship between double circulation and the lungs?  
respiration uptake of oxygen from the environment (ventilation) and the disposal of carbon dioxide at the body system level (exhalation); both of these gasses move through diffusion

Consider:  CO2 is more easily transferred into water through respiratory membranes compared to O2 because CO2 is more soluble in water than O2 Consequently, a high proportion of CO2 is dissolved in blood's plasma.
What is ventilation and exhalation?  
definitions Tidal volume: air in and out in a single relaxed breath

Vital capacity: maximum tidal volume; sum of tidal, inspiratory reserve and expiratory reserve (older persons have less)

Inspiratory reserve volume: air taken in beyond tidal volume using forced inspiration

Expiratory reserve volume: air forced out beyond tidal volume by contracting chest and abdominal muscles

Residual volume: air remaining in lungs after deepest possible expiration (no exchange use)

Know the definitions.  
expansion of lungs creates negative pressure thereby promoting filling with atmospheric gasses
What sort of pressure allows our lungs to fill?  
most efficient lungs birds
Which organism has the most efficient lungs?  
breath impulse for humans and terrestrial vertebrates a rise in blood pCO2 -->carbonic acid --> pH lower --> aortic and carotid bodies neurons stimulated --> impulse to control center in medulla oblongata --> inhalation
Which gas has the greatest role in triggering an impulse to breathe?  

 

Non-PLTL questions

126. Stimulating the vagus nerve would cause 
A. blood pressure to rise.
B. heart rate to increase.
C. heart rate to decrease.
D. no change in any cardiovascular parameters.
E. a release in epinephrine.
 
127. If your blood had a higher than normal concentration of proteins, which of the following would likely be true? 
A. You would have edema.
B. You would have liver disease.
C. The net reabsorption of interstitial fluid in the capillaries would be low.
D. The net reabsorption of interstitial fluid in the capillaries would be high.
E. Insulin levels would increase.
 
128.  Which of the following vessels carries oxygenated blood?  
A.  pulmonary arteries
B.  pulmonary veins
C.  femoral vein
D.  inferior vena cava
E.  renal vein
 
129. The mechanism that triggers breathing in humans is true for 
A. all vertebrates.
B. just terrestrial vertebrates.
C. just aquatic vertebrates.
D. only humans.
E. only humans and invertebrates.
 
130. CO2 is more easily transferred into water through respiratory membranes compared to O2 because 
A. CO2 is a smaller molecule than O2.
B. CO2 moves faster than O2.
C. CO2 is more soluble in water than O2.
D. CO2 has a higher surface cohesion than O2.
E. CO2 is a larger molecule than O2.