These are the questions from the lectures on May 25 & 26 for the non-PLTL students.  I will be adding questions as we go through next week's lectures.


1. The evolution of a coelom allows for 
A. bilateral symmetry to develop.
B. cephalization to occur.
C. the development of a hydrostatic skeleton.
D. the expansion of gonads.
E. an air-filled bladder.


2. A biologist discovered a new animal. Upon studying embryonic development, she observed radial cleavage with the blastopore developing into an anus. This animal was categorized as a 
A. parazoan.
B. radiata.
C. deuterstome.
D. protostome.
E. pseudocoelomate.


3. All of the following features are associated with bilateral symmetry in animals except 
A. conferring anterior and posterior areas to the body.
B. allowing for greater efficiency in movement.
C. creating a body design of two mirror images.
D. allowing for efficiency in seeking food and mates.
E. being sessile.


4. Which of the following is not true about animals? 
A. They constitute millions of species.
B. They are very diverse in form.
C. They were some of the first organisms on the earth.
D. They show great mobility.
E. They are found in every conceivable habitat.


5. The fate of the embryonic germ layers is: 
A. The endoderm forms the gut, the ectoderm forms the epidermis and parts of the nervous system, and the mesoderm forms muscles and most internal organs.
B. The endoderm forms the gut, the ectoderm forms the reproductive tract and endocrine system, and the mesoderm forms muscles and most internal organs.
C. The endoderm forms the inner part of all internal organs, the mesoderm forms the middle parts, and the ectoderm forms the outer coverings.
D. The layers are sequential structures that all disappear during development, with the endoderm appearing first and then is replaced by the mesoderm, which in turn is supplanted by the ectoderm.
E. The endoderm is an embryonic structure that disappears early, whereas the ectoderm persists as the skin and the mesoderm as the internal organs.


6. Coelomates are: 
A. two embryos that develop in the same coelom
B. animals that have a true coelom
C. animals that have two coeloms
D. animals that have no coelom
E. animals in which the coelom disappears at gastrulation


7. Ecdysis is: 
A. development of the ectoderm layer in the gastrula
B. development of the epidermis from the ectoderm
C. disintegration of the ectoderm
D. molting
E. the feeding tentacles of the Ecdysozoa


8. An acoelomate is an animal that: 
A. has a coelom
B. has a pseudocoelom
C. has both a coelom and a pseudocoelom
D. has neither a coelom nor a pseudocoelom
E. has a coelom during early development but later loses it


9. Which of the phyla of animals has the greatest number of species? 
A. Arthropoda
B. Chordata
C. Mollusca
D. Annelida
E. Nematoda


10. Most animals undergo the following patterns of embryonic development. 
A. zygote morula blastula gastrula
B. zygote blastula morula gastrula
C. zygote gastrula morula blastula
D. zygote morula gastrula blastopore


11. In which part of a sponge's body does fertilization occur? 
A. the ostium
B. the mesohyl
C. the spicule
D. the spongin
E. the amoebocyte


12. The Porifera and Cnidaria have superficially similar body plans. Indicate which of the following does NOT describe equivalent features in the two groups. 
A. spongocoel and gastrovascular cavity
B. mesohyl and mesoglea
C. osculum and mouth/anus
D. epithelial cells and epidermis
E. spongin and polyp


13. The protrusible rasping organ in a mollusk's mouth that is used to scrape food from the substrate is: 
A. a veliger
B. a visceral mass
C. composed of nacre
D. a radula
E. an ammonite


14. The change of a larval form of insect to a different adult form is known as: 
A. tagmosis
B. incomplete metamorphosis
C. complete metamorphosis
D. instar
E. chrysalis


15. Most species of tapeworms live in the 
A. stomachs of vertebrates.
B. lungs of vertebrates.
C. livers of vertebrates.
D. intestines of vertebrates.
E. hearts of vertebrates.


16. Flukes are parasitic worms whose hosts during the larval stage are usually 
A. aquatic insects.
B. cyprinid fishes.
C. humans.
D. free-living flatworms.
E. snails.


17. The phylum that includes snails, clams, oysters, and octopuses is the 
A. Ectoprocta.
B. Brachiopoda.
C. Mollusca.
D. Annelida.
E. Phoronida.


18. The nitrogenous waste in mollusks is removed by 
A. flame cells.
B. nephridia.
C. Malpighian tubules.
D. incurrent siphon.
E. flagella.


19. Annelids possess all of the following except 
A. muscles to swim, crawl, and burrow.
B. ganglia to respond to light and respond to other environmental cues.
C. circulatory, excretory, and neural elements in each segment.
D. setae in each segment.
E. adductor muscles.


20. The evolutionary innovation that first appeared in arthropods and is characteristic of the most successful of all animal groups is that of 
A. bilateral symmetry.
B. coelomic body architecture.
C. jointed appendages.
D. segmentation.
E. three primary types of tissues.

These are the questions from the May 31 lecture on Vertebrates and mammals.

21. It is generally accepted that the vertebrates that evolved during the mid-Devonian period are the 
A. sharks and bony fish.
B. hominoids.
C. birds.
D. dinosaurs.
E. mammals.
22.  Traditionally, amphibians were thought to have evolved from  
A.  ray-finned fish.
B.  lobe-finned fish.
C.  spiny fish.
D.  skates and rays.
E.  annelids.
23. Mammals are thought to have evolved from 
A. thecodonts.
B. therapsids.
C. dinosaurs.
D. marsupials.
E. archosaurs.
24. Apes and humans together make up a group called 
A. hominids.
B. hominoids.
C. Homo sapiens.
D. habilis.
E. prosimians.
25. The lateral line is: 
A. a lateral stripe on the side of male fish that aids in sex-recognition
B. a series of sensory organs that detects pressure waves in the water
C. the row of fins along the sides of eels
D. the row of pharyngeal slits along each side of the heads of fish
E. the row of small blocks of cartilage along each side of the notochord of agnathan fishes
26. Evolutionarily, the jaws of vertebrates developed from: 
A. the circular mouth of lampreys
B. the last pharyngeal arch of jawless fishes
C. the third pharyngeal arch of jawless fishes
D. the operculum
E. the claspers
27. Buccal pumping is: 
A. pumping blood from the atria to the ventricle
B. pumping air into the lungs by raising the floor of the throat
C. pumping blood from the ventricle to the body
D. pumping wastes through the kidneys
E. pumping blood from the ventricle to the atria
28. Birds are different from all other living vertebrates because they: 
A. can fly
B. lack teeth
C. have feathers
D. are bipedal
E. All of the choices provided are correct.
29. The Order Primates had its origin in: 
A. small arboreal monotremes
B. bipedal marsupials
C. small, arboreal, insect-eating mammals
D. bipedal ornithischian dinosaurs
E. theropods with hair
30. The human lineage began to diverge from those of other primates about: 
A. 153 million years ago
B. 210 million years ago
C. 6 million years ago
D. 18 million years ago
E. 64 million years ago


These are the take-home questions for the non-PLTL students.  They are taken from the Animal Form/Homeostasis lecture.
31. Bone cells can remain alive even though the extracellular matrix becomes hardened with crystals of calcium phosphate. This type of cell is also called a(n) 
A. osteocyte.
B. erythrocyte.
C. leukocyte.
D. fibrocyte.
E. chrondrocyte.
32. The glands of vertebrates are derived from ____________ epithelium. 
A. invaginated
B. simple stratified
C. stratified squamous
D. simple columnar
E. squamous keratinized
33. Which muscle contraction is involuntary? 
A. cardiac
B. smooth
C. cardiac and smooth
D. skeletal
E. cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
34. Myelin sheaths are found along 
A. axons.
B. dendrites.
C. neuroglias.
D. cell bodies.
E. ganglia.
 For #35, choose the letter of the best match from the following definitions of negative feedback.
A. deviation from set point
B. causes changes to compensate for deviation
C. constantly monitors conditions
D. compares conditions to a set point
E. body temperature rises
35. Sensor 
36. Which of the major tissue types has shortening of cells (i.e., contraction) as its major function? 
A. nervous
B. muscular
C. epithelial
D. connective
E. All of the choices are correct.
37. In an organism with either a closed or open circulatory system, most of the body fluids are in the 
A. intracellular fluid.
B. extracellular fluid.
C. interstitial fluid.
D. plasma.
E. hemolymph.
38. The release of factors by cells that influence the activity of nearby cells is referred to as 
A. autocrine signaling.
B. paracrine signaling.
C. pheromonal signaling.
D. electrical signaling.
E. exocrine signaling.
39. Which of the following is true of both neurotransmitters and hormones? 
A. They are both involved in paracrine signaling.
B. They both interact with receptors inside or on the surface of target cells.
C. They are both produced in glands.
D. They both travel through the bloodstream to target cells.
E. They both influence the activity of multiple organs simultaneously.
40. Solutes move between body compartments by using 
A. diffusion.
B. ATP-powered active transport.
C. transporters.
D. facilitated diffusion.
E. Solutes use all of these mechanisms to move between compartments.

These are the take-home questions for the non-PLTL students.  They are taken from the portion of the Digestion lecture finished in class on June 2.  This covered material is highlighted in pink on the Review.

41. Saliva contains the hydrolytic enzyme, salivary amylase, which initiates the breakdown of the polysaccharide _________ into the disaccharide, maltose. 
A. cellulose
B. sucrose
C. glucose
D. starch
E. fructose
42. In humans, and other vertebrates, the digestive system consists of 
A. a one-way tube with a separate mouth and anus and accessory organs.
B. a two-way tube with a separate mouth and anus.
C. a tube with a single opening that serves as mouth and anus.
D. a two-way tube with a separate mouth and anus and accessory organs.
E. a one-way tube with a separate mouth and anus and no accessory organs.
43. Gizzards designed to grind food are found in 
A. mammals.
B. insects.
C. birds.
D. marsupials.
E. monotrenes.
44. The rhythmic contractions of the esophagus are called 
A. esophageal contractions.
B. esophageal convulsions.
C. peristalsis.
D. heartburn sensations.
E. mastication.
45.  Which of the following describes the sequential processes occurring in the stomach?
 I-Peristaltic waves of contraction propel the food along the esophagus.
 II-Gastric juices are secreted with the arrival of food into the stomach.
 III-The acidic chyme is transferred through the pyloric sphincter.
 IV-HCl activates pepsinogen into pepsin starting digestion of proteins into shorter polypeptides.  
A.  IV, III, and II
B.  II, III, and IV
C.  I, II, and III
D.  I, II, and IV
E.  II, IV, and III
46. The first organ to receive the products of digestion after absorption is the 
A. duodenum.
B. pancreas.
C. liver.
D. gallbladder.
E. colon.
47. The gallbladder secretes into the small intestine a fluid that can make the fat partially water soluble. It is called 
A. chyme.
B. bile.
C. chylomicron.
D. emulsion.
E. lipoprotein.
48. Excess blood glucose is removed by the liver to convert it into 
A. cellulose.
B. maltose and other disaccharides.
C. starch.
D. glycogen.
E. all of these.
49. A friend describes to you a choking event in her life. She says that "the food went down the wrong pipe." She meant that 
A. some food went down her esophagus.
B. some food was stuck in her pharynx.
C. some food went down her trachea.
D. some food lodged in one of her salivary gland ducts.
E. some food was stuck in her esophagus.
50. Which of the following is the most accurate statement regarding the ingestion of two tablets of Rolaids? 
A. The fluid in the stomach would begin reabsorbing.
B. The HCl production would decrease.
C. The pH of the stomach fluid would decrease.
D. The pH of the stomach fluid would increase.