Kingdom Protista:

(1)   Algae:

-         photosynthetic (autotrophs)

-         pigmented (chlorophylls, caretenoids and phycobulins)

-         unicellular, filamentous or colonial

-         Phlyum Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta,Chrysophyta, Pyrrhophyta & Euglenophyta




Phylum Chlorophyta:

(1) Chlamydomonas

-         unicellular

-         motile (flagella)

-         stigma – absorbs light

-         pyrenoid – production and storage of starch

-         asexual and sexual reproduction (syngamy)










Chlamydomonas Life Cycle


(2)   Spirogyra and Cladophora        

-         filamentous

-         found in freshwater

-         sexual reproduction = conjugation (Spirogyra)


-         alternation of generation (Cladophora)


(3)   Volvox

-         colonial (multicellular)

-         spherical in shape

-         2 flagella protrude from each cell to spin the colony through the water

-         cells within the colony are functionally different

-         sexual reproduction (oogamy – one gamete is small and motile while the other is large and nonmotile)

-         daughter cells are initially held within the parent colony


(4)   Volvocine Line (unicellular isogamous à colonial isogamous à colonial oogamous)






Phylum Phaeophyta:

-         some of the largest algae

-         chlorophylls a and c

-         brown color due to fucoxanthin

-         marine and cool waters

-         store energy as laminarin

-         important as a food source (Laminaria)

-         alginic acid used as an emulsifier


(1)   Fucus

-         attached to rocks by a holdfast

-         sexual reproduction

-         no haploid stage like most protests


M = male conceptacle (contains antheridia                       F= female conceptacle (contains oogonia

     that produce sperm)                                                        that produce eggs)



Phylum Rhodophyta

-         red algae

-         chlorophylls a and d

-         red color due to red phycobulins (phycoerythrin)

-         marine species

-         attached or free floating

-         filamentous or fleshy



Phylum Chrysophyta

-         golden algae

-         diatoms

-         free swimming

-         unicellular

-         chlorophylls a and c

-         get their yellow-brown color from carotenes and xanthophylls

-         autotrophs (primary link in food chain)

-         asexual or sexual reproduction

-         silica cell wall – accumulates as diatomaceous earth

                                                             - paint additive for reflectivity

                                                             - polish for silver and toothpaste

                                                             - insulation (furnaces)$File/Diatoms.jpg




Phylum Pyrhophyta

-         dinoflagellates

-         unicellular

-         2 dissimilar flagella

-         marine or freshwater

-         cause red tides (Ptychodiscus bruvis) which kill many fish (toxins and decreased oxygen)

-         autotrophs (primary producers in food chain)

-         some are parasitic

-         some live symbiotically with corals



Phylum Euglenophyta

-         euglenoids

-         unicelluar

-         freshwater

-         chlorophylls a and b

-         protein cell walls = pellicle (flexible for movement)

-         eyespot (stigma) for detection of light

-         autotrophic or heterotrophic (phagocytosis)

-         asexual reproduction (longitudinal fission) but no sexual reproduction

-         measure of pollution (increased numbers, increased pollution à like Nitrogen)



Evolution of Body Form (unbranched filamentous à branched filamentous à branched parenchymous)












Phylum Rhizopoda:

-         marine, freshwater or terrestrial

-         unicellular and heterotrophic

-         characteristic = psuedopods (locomotion and feeding)

-         examples: Amoeba proteus, Difflugia and Entamoeba histolytica


             Amoeba proteus





Text Box: (locomotion & feeding)




Difflugia Text Box: Test (shell)
- “Amoeba with a shell”





Text Box: psuedopodia





-         produces shell (test) from sand grains

-         Text Box: psuedopodia
sand is swallowed during fission and are passed to the daughter cells where they are joined together to form the shell 


     Entamoeba histolytica



















-         intestinal parasite

-         trophozites have endosome that infects visceral tissues (intestines and liver)

-         trophozites encyst as they pass through the colon

-         cysts have 4 nuclei

-         spread through by fecal contamination of drinking water, raw vegetables and careless food handlers



Phylum Foraminifera (pore-bearing)

-         “shelled amoebas”

-         test (calcium carbonate) – multichambered (separated by septa)

-         symmetry of test is different from that of Difflugia

-         psuedopods ( perforate through pores in the shell)

-         some live near the ocean floor and deposit their shell on the ocean floor when they die

-         some are also planktonic

-         important in oil – extinct forms have been found in oil-bearing rocks



Phylum Sarcomastigophora (fleshy whip bearer)


-         unicellular and heterotrophic

-         flagella present ( at least one)

-         example: Trypanosoma (caustitive agent of African sleeping sickness/Chaga’s disease)  

Text Box: Thin, flat (flexible) surface and can be waved for movement
















Phylum Ciliophora (ciliates)



-         heterotrophic

-         hair-like cilia (locomotion & feeding)

-         cilia help to sweep food into the gullet

-         food is then taken to the food vacuoles

-         2 types of nuclei (macro and micro)

-         micronuclei responsible for cell division

-         macronucleus responsible for normal cell functions

-         sexual reproduction by conjugation

-         asexual reproduction by longitudinal fission








Phylum Myxomycota

-         plasmodial slime mold

-         heterotrphic

-         multinucleate

-         amoeboid movement

-         similar to fungi but no cell wall of chitin

-         forms sporangia like fungi for dispersal of spores


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Phylum Apicomplexa

- Plasmodium = best-known sporozoan

- cause of malaria

- common in the tropics --> predominant in sub-Saharan Africa

- approximately 350-500 million cases a year (CDC -

- Transmission: human to human by female Anopheles mosquitoes


- Symptoms:  anemia, fever, chills, nausea and flu-like illness

- Prevention: insect repellents and anti-malarial drugs