Kingdom Protista:

(1)   Algae:

-         photosynthetic (autotrophs)

-         pigmented (chlorophylls, caretenoids and phycobulins)

-         unicellular, filamentous or colonial

-         Phlyum Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta,Chrysophyta, Pyrrhophyta & Euglenophyta

 

 

 

Phylum Chlorophyta:

(1) Chlamydomonas

-         unicellular

-         motile (flagella)

-         stigma – absorbs light

-         pyrenoid – production and storage of starch

-         asexual and sexual reproduction (syngamy)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/bot4404/Chl_chlamydomonas_draw.gif

 

 

Chlamydomonas Life Cycle

 

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/chlamydomonasrepro.jpg

 

(2)   Spirogyra and Cladophora        

-         filamentous

-         found in freshwater

-         sexual reproduction = conjugation (Spirogyra)

http://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/academics/biology/images/spiro1.jpg

 

-         alternation of generation (Cladophora)

http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/image/47850/Cladophora.gif

  

(3)   Volvox

-         colonial (multicellular)

-         spherical in shape

-         2 flagella protrude from each cell to spin the colony through the water

-         cells within the colony are functionally different

-         sexual reproduction (oogamy – one gamete is small and motile while the other is large and nonmotile)

-         daughter cells are initially held within the parent colony

http://www.world-science.net/images/volvox.JPG

 

(4)   Volvocine Line (unicellular isogamous à colonial isogamous à colonial oogamous)

 

              

                                    http://nimravid.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/volvocide-small.jpg

 

 

Phylum Phaeophyta:

-         some of the largest algae

-         chlorophylls a and c

-         brown color due to fucoxanthin

-         marine and cool waters

-         store energy as laminarin

-         important as a food source (Laminaria)

-         alginic acid used as an emulsifier

 

(1)   Fucus

-         attached to rocks by a holdfast

-         sexual reproduction

-         no haploid stage like most protests

http://www.euita.upv.es/varios/biologia/images/Figuras_tema1/fucus.jpg

 

M = male conceptacle (contains antheridia                       F= female conceptacle (contains oogonia

     that produce sperm)                                                        that produce eggs)

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.lima.ohiostate.edu/academics/biology/images/spiro1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.lima.ohiostate.edu/academics/biology/biodiv/webplant.htm&h=461&w=551&sz=80&hl=en&start=99&tbnid=cwRF2Ik_3aNhQM:&tbnh=111&tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dspirogyra%26start%3D80%26ndsp%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

 

 

Phylum Rhodophyta

-         red algae

-         chlorophylls a and d

-         red color due to red phycobulins (phycoerythrin)

-         marine species

-         attached or free floating

-         filamentous or fleshy

 

 

http://ind.ntou.edu.tw/~b0232/porphyra.jpg

 

 

Phylum Chrysophyta

-         golden algae

-         diatoms

-         free swimming

-         unicellular

-         chlorophylls a and c

-         get their yellow-brown color from carotenes and xanthophylls

-         autotrophs (primary link in food chain)

-         asexual or sexual reproduction

-         silica cell wall – accumulates as diatomaceous earth

                                                             - paint additive for reflectivity

                                                             - polish for silver and toothpaste

                                                             - insulation (furnaces)

http://www.zeiss.com/C12567BE00472A5C/GraphikTitelIntern/Discovery_Applications02/$File/Diatoms.jpg

 

 

 

Phylum Pyrhophyta

-         dinoflagellates

-         unicellular

-         2 dissimilar flagella

-         marine or freshwater

-         cause red tides (Ptychodiscus bruvis) which kill many fish (toxins and decreased oxygen)

-         autotrophs (primary producers in food chain)

-         some are parasitic

-         some live symbiotically with corals

 

http://serc.carleton.edu/images/microbelife/topics/red_tide.jpg

 

 

Phylum Euglenophyta

-         euglenoids

-         unicelluar

-         freshwater

-         chlorophylls a and b

-         protein cell walls = pellicle (flexible for movement)

-         eyespot (stigma) for detection of light

-         autotrophic or heterotrophic (phagocytosis)

-         asexual reproduction (longitudinal fission) but no sexual reproduction

-         measure of pollution (increased numbers, increased pollution à like Nitrogen)

 

 

 

http://www.personal.psu.edu/dcw1/graphics/euglena.gif                      http://scienceblogs.com/clock/upload/2006/07/Euglena.JPG

 

 

Evolution of Body Form (unbranched filamentous à branched filamentous à branched parenchymous)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                http://www.mtsu.edu/~rsb2b/Lab9Protists_files/frame.htm

 

http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/2152/Stigeoclonium1.jpg

http://www.californiabiota.com/cabiota/ulva_lobata.jpg

 

 

 

Phylum Rhizopoda:

-         marine, freshwater or terrestrial

-         unicellular and heterotrophic

-         characteristic = psuedopods (locomotion and feeding)

-         examples: Amoeba proteus, Difflugia and Entamoeba histolytica

                                                     

             Amoeba proteus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www1.fccj.org/dbyres/images/wpe4.JPG

Text Box: (locomotion & feeding)
 

 

                        http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/mjvl/biology/cells/amoeba.gif

 

http://www.uccs.edu/~rmelamed/MicroFall2002/Chapter%204/ameoba.jpg

 

Difflugia Text Box: Test (shell)
- “Amoeba with a shell”

 

 

 

 

Text Box: psuedopodia

 

 

 

                                                           http://www.stetson.edu/~kwork/difflugia%20with%20shell.jpg

-         produces shell (test) from sand grains

-         Text Box: psuedopodia
sand is swallowed during fission and are passed to the daughter cells where they are joined together to form the shell 

 

     Entamoeba histolytica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                           http://www.siamhealth.net/Disease/infectious/infection/Amebiasis_LifeCycle.gif

 

-         intestinal parasite

-         trophozites have endosome that infects visceral tissues (intestines and liver)

-         trophozites encyst as they pass through the colon

-         cysts have 4 nuclei

-         spread through by fecal contamination of drinking water, raw vegetables and careless food handlers

 

 

Phylum Foraminifera (pore-bearing)

-         “shelled amoebas”

-         test (calcium carbonate) – multichambered (separated by septa)

-         symmetry of test is different from that of Difflugia

-         psuedopods ( perforate through pores in the shell)

-         some live near the ocean floor and deposit their shell on the ocean floor when they die

-         some are also planktonic

-         important in oil – extinct forms have been found in oil-bearing rocks

 

http://bio.rutgers.edu/~gb102/lab_1/202am-foram.html

 

 

Phylum Sarcomastigophora (fleshy whip bearer)

 

-         unicellular and heterotrophic

-         flagella present ( at least one)

-         example: Trypanosoma (caustitive agent of African sleeping sickness/Chaga’s disease)

 

http://www.ucm.es/info/parasito/Trypanosoma.jpg  

Text Box: Thin, flat (flexible) surface and can be waved for movement

 

              http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/science/zoology/faculty/dick/z346/images/tryp2.jpg

                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.mt.mahidol.ac.th/eLearning/Parasite/Assets/trypanosoma%20gambiensecycle.gif

 

 

Phylum Ciliophora (ciliates)

 

 

-         heterotrophic

-         hair-like cilia (locomotion & feeding)

-         cilia help to sweep food into the gullet

-         food is then taken to the food vacuoles

-         2 types of nuclei (macro and micro)

-         micronuclei responsible for cell division

-         macronucleus responsible for normal cell functions

-         sexual reproduction by conjugation

-         asexual reproduction by longitudinal fission

 

 

 

 

               http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~biol240/labs/lab_06protists/media/paramecium.jpg

 

 

Phylum Myxomycota

-         plasmodial slime mold

-         heterotrphic

-         multinucleate

-         amoeboid movement

-         similar to fungi but no cell wall of chitin

-         forms sporangia like fungi for dispersal of spores

 

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http://www.herbarium.usu.edu/fungi/FunFacts/SlimeMold.htm

 

Phylum Apicomplexa

- Plasmodium = best-known sporozoan

- cause of malaria

- common in the tropics --> predominant in sub-Saharan Africa

- approximately 350-500 million cases a year (CDC - http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/)

- Transmission: human to human by female Anopheles mosquitoes

 

http://a.abcnews.com/images/Health/apgb_malaria5_051028_ssh.jpg

 

http://science.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/Science/Images/Content/malaria-parasites-523039-ga.jpg

 

- Symptoms:  anemia, fever, chills, nausea and flu-like illness

- Prevention: insect repellents and anti-malarial drugs

 

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/17248.jpg